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West Indian Medical Journal

Print version ISSN 0043-3144

West Indian med. j. vol.63 no.1 Mona Jan. 2014

 

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

 

Effect of integrated yoga module on selected psychological variables among women with anxiety problem

 

Efecto del módulo de yoga integrado sobre las variables psicológicas seleccionadas entre las mujeres con problemas de ansiedad

 

 

S ParthasarathyI; K JaiganeshI; DuraisamyII

IMahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 607402, India
IIDepartment of Yoga, Tamil Nadu Physical Education and Sports University, Chennai 600127, India

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

The implementation of yogic practices has proven benefits in both organic and psychological diseases. Forty-five women with anxiety selected by a random sampling method were divided into three groups. Experimental group I was subjected to asanas, relaxation and pranayama while Experimental group II was subjected to an integrated yoga module. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety was measured by Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. Frustration was measured through Reaction to Frustration Scale. All data were spread in an Excel sheet to be analysed with SPSS 16 software using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Selected yoga and asanas decreased anxiety and frustration scores but treatment with an integrated yoga module resulted in significant reduction of anxiety and frustration. To conclude, the practice of asanas and yoga decreased anxiety in women, and yoga as an integrated module significantly improved anxiety scores in young women with proven anxiety without any ill effects.

Keywords: Anxiety, asanas, integrated yoga module


RESUMEN

La implementación de prácticas de yoga ha demostrado beneficios en enfermedades tanto orgánicas como psicológicas. Cuarenta y cinco mujeres con ansiedad, seleccionadas por un método de muestreo aleatorio, fueron divididas en tres grupos. El grupo experimental I fue sometido a asanas, relajación y pranayama, mientras que el grupo experimental II fue sometido a un módulo de yoga integrado. El grupo de control no recibió ninguna intervención. La ansiedad fue medida por la Escala de Ansiedad Manifiesta de Taylor, antes y después del tratamiento. La frustración se midió a través de la Reacción a la Escala de Frustración. Todos los datos fueron separados en una hoja de Excel para ser analizados con el software SPSS 16 mediante el análisis de covarianza (ANCOVA). Las selecciones de asanas y yoga disminuyeron las puntuaciones de ansiedad y frustración, pero el tratamiento con el módulo de yoga integrado resultó en una reducción significativa de la ansiedad y la frustración. En resumen, la práctica de yoga y las asanas disminuyeron la ansiedad en las mujeres, y el yoga como en forma de módulo integrado mejoró significativamente las puntuaciones de ansiedad en las mujeres jóvenes con probada ansiedad, sin efectos negativos.

Palabras claves: Ansiedad, asanas, módulo de yoga integrado


 

 

INTRODUCTION

In the modern era, the concept of yoga is not usually given much importance. Yoga is a way of life, a culture and a lifestyle which includes not just techniques and ideas, but also eating and bathing habits, prayer, social interaction and work. The practice of yoga has many benefits. The results of yogic practices have proven benefits in both organic and psychological diseases (1, 2). Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional and behavioural components. These components combine to create an unpleasant feeling that is typically associated with uneasiness, apprehension, fear or worry. The effects of anxiety include palpitations, muscle weakness, fatigue, nausea, chest pain, shortness of breath, or headaches. It may also produce emotional reactions like restlessness, panic and irritability (3). We tried to evaluate the effect of forming an integrated yoga module on anxiety. The purpose of the study was to find out and compare the effects of asanas, yoga as an integrated module, on selected psychological variables among women with anxiety problem.

 

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

The sample for the present study consists of 45 women with anxiety disorder from a tertiary care centre in Chennai city near Puducherry. After proper institutional ethics committee approval, the subjects were selected using random sampling method. Their ages ranged from 25 to 35 years. They were divided into three groups by a sealed envelope technique, namely: Experimental group I, Experimental group II and Control group (III). Experimental group I was administered asanas, pranayamas and relaxation for a period of eight weeks in the morning and Experimental group II was under the practice of Sitilikarana vyayama, suryanamaskar, asanas, pranayama and yoga nidra practices (integrated yoga module) for a period of eight weeks. The training programme was administered for forty-five minutes per session. The control group did not engage in any special activities. The described yogic practices were done according to established protocols. The detailed description of the techniques is beyond the scope of this article. The load of the treatment was based on a pilot study. Anxiety was measured by Taylor'sManifestAnxiety Scale before and after treatment. Frustration was measured through Reaction to Frustration Scale. All data were spread in an Excel sheet to be analysed with SPSS 16 software using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).

 

RESULTS

The demographic variables and the pretest variables were similar between the groups. Table 1 shows the variance of anxiety among experimental groups I and II and the control group (group III) of women with anxiety problem.

 

 

The scores were decreased significantly in the experimental groups than in the control group, with statistically significantly more reduction in Experimental group II. The integrated yoga module caused a significant fall of anxiety scores which is better than the set of asanas, relaxation and pranayama. The required Scheffe's confidence interval to be significant at the 0.05 level was 0.86. The difference between experimental groups I and II and the control group of women with anxiety problem was greater than the required confidence interval and hence there was significant difference between experimental groups I and II; there was also a significant difference between the experimental groups and control group. The frustration scores are analysed in Table 2. There were no complications during the practice sessions.

 

 

DISCUSSION

Anxiety is a multifaceted condition with varied repercussions. The administration of integrated yoga module has different benefits. In our study, we found that there were benefits with asanas and yoga in decreasing anxiety and frustration scores. These benefits were better if practised as an integrated yoga module. Yoga might have a role in managing self-reported distress and modulating circadian patterns of stress hormones in early breast cancer patients (4) undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Gupta et al (5) have studied the effects of yoga based lifestyle intervention in anxiety patients and found it effective in decreasing anxiety scores. Lavey et al (6) studied the effects of yoga in psychiatric inpatients and found it useful. These findings go along with our results. Vadiraja et al (7), in their evaluation of the effects of a yoga programme on cortisol rhythm and mood states, reported that significant improvement was noticed in patients with early breast cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy after a yoga package was administered to them. The yoga package produced no ill effects in the women tested (7) which was consistent with our results.

 

CONCLUSION

The practice of asanas, relaxation and pranayama decreased anxiety in women but the practice of yoga as an integrated yoga module significantly improved anxiety scores in young women with proven anxiety without any ill effects.

 

REFERENCES

1. Khalsa SB. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries.Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2004; 29: 269–78.

2. Yang K. A review of yoga programmes for four leading risk factors of chronic diseases. Evid Based ComplementAlternatMed 2007; 4: 487–91.

3. Hadjistavropoulos HD, Craig KD, Hadjistavropoulos T. Cognitive and behavioral responses to illness information: the role of health anxiety. Behav Res Ther 1998; 36: 149–64.

4. RaoMR, Raghuram N, Nagendra HR, Gopinath KS, Srinath BS, Diwakar RB et al. Anxiolytic effects of a yoga programme in early breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2011; 19: 1–8.

5. Gupta N, Khera S, Vempati RP, Sharma R, Bhujani RL. Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on state and trait anxiety. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2006; 50: 41–7.

6. Lavey R, Sherman T, Mueser KT, Osborne DD, CurrierM,Wolfe R. The effects of yoga on mood in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatr Rehabil J 2005; 28: 399–402.

7. Vadiraja HS, Raghavendra RM, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Rekha M, Vanitha N et al. Effects of a yoga program on cortisol rhythm and mood states in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. Integr Cancer Ther 2009; 8: 37–46. doi: 10.1177/1534735409331456. Epub 2009 Feb 3.

 

 

Correspondence:
Dr S Parthasarathy,
Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute,
Puducherry, 607402, India.
E-mail: painfreepartha@gmail.com